2. RAUC Basics

From a top view, the RAUC update framework provides a solution for four basic tasks:

  • generating update artifacts

  • signing and verification of update artifacts

  • robust installation handling

  • interfacing with the boot process

RAUC is basically an image-based updater, i.e. it installs file images on devices or partitions. But, for target devices that can have a file system, it also supports installing contents from tar archives. This often provides much more flexibility as a tar archive does not have to fit a specific partition size or type. RAUC ensures that the target file system will be set up correctly before unpacking the archive.

2.1. Update Artifacts – Bundles

In order to know how to pack multiple file system images, properly handle installation, being able to check system compatibility and for other meta-information RAUC uses a well-defined update artifact format, simply referred to as bundles in the following.

A RAUC bundle consists of the file system image(s) or archive(s) to be installed on the system, a manifest that lists the images to install and contains options and meta-information, and possible scripts to run before, during or after installation. A bundle may also contain files not referenced in the manifest, such as scripts or archives that are referenced by files that are included in the manifest.

To pack this all together, these contents are collected into a SquashFS image. This provides good compression while allowing to mount the bundle without having to unpack it on the target system. This way, no additional intermediate storage is required. For more details see the Bundle Formats section.

A key design decision of RAUC is that signing a bundle is mandatory. For development purpose a self-signed certificate might be sufficient, for production the signing process should be integrated with your PKI infrastructure.


A RAUC Bundle should always unambiguously describe the intended target state of the entire system.

2.1.1. HTTP Streaming

Since RAUC 1.7, bundles can be installed directly from a HTTP(S) server, without having to download and store the bundle locally. Simply use the bundle URL as the rauc install argument instead of a local file.

Using streaming has a few requirements:

  • make sure RAUC is built with -Dstreaming=true (which is the default)

  • create bundles using the verity format

  • host the bundle on a server which supports HTTP Range Requests

  • enable NBD support in the target kernel

See the HTTP Streaming section in the Advanced chapter for more details.

2.2. Forward and Backward Compatibility

Our overall goal with regards to compatibility is a good balance between the requirements of users and the constraints during development. For users, it is mainly relevant how a given version of RAUC on the target handles bundles produced by older (backward compatibility) and newer versions (forward compatibility) of RAUC. As developers, we want to keep the effort for supporting old versions in the field at a reasonable level and have the flexibility to improve RAUC with new versions.

To ensure forward compatibility, new bundle features need to be enabled explicitly during bundle creation. So without changing the manifest, newer RAUC versions used for bundle creation will not require new versions on the target. This includes new bundle formats, new hooks, adaptive updates or additional metadata. When a new (incompatible) feature is enabled in a bundle, older RAUC versions will report an error during installation to ensure that the installation result is deterministic. As long as you don’t enable new features during creation, our intention is that bundles created by newer versions will be installable by older versions and any such issues would be considered a bug.

To ensure backward compatibility, support for older bundle features is enabled by default and can be disabled explicitly in the RAUC system.conf as needed. To keep RAUC maintainable, we may need to deprecate and later remove support for old features over time. This would be done with several years between deprecation and removal so that at least one Yocto LTS version contains a RAUC version that warns when using the deprecated feature, giving users enough time to migrate away from that feature. Any issues with installing bundles created by an old RAUC version using a new RAUC version would be considered a bug, except when using a feature removed after the deprecation period. Also, please contact us if a deprecation period is too short for your use case.

Furthermore, we avoid depending on new kernel features or library versions, so that it is possible to switch to newer RAUC versions without having to switch to a new distribution release at the same time. The guideline is that we can depend on new features only when they are available in all versions still actively supported by the respective upstream projects.

As a result, users that update at least every two years (for example by following Yocto LTS releases) should receive deprecation warnings early enough to handling them via normal updates.

2.3. RAUC’s System View

Apart from bundle signing and verification, the main task of RAUC is to ensure that all images in your update bundle are copied in the proper way to the proper target device / partition on your board.

In order to allow RAUC to handle your device correctly, we need to give it the right view on your system.

2.3.1. Slots

In RAUC, everything that can be updated is a slot. Thus a slot can either be a full device, a partition, a volume or simply a file.

To let RAUC know which slots exists on the board that should be handled, the slots must be configured in a system configuration file. This file is the central instance that tells RAUC how to handle the board, which bootloader to use, which custom scripts to execute, etc.

This includes the slot description names, for example, the file path that the slot can be accessed with, the type of storage or filesystem to use, its identification from the bootloader, etc.

2.3.2. Target Slot Selection

A very important step when installing an update is to determine the correct mapping from the images that are contained in a RAUC bundle to the slots that are defined on the target system. This mapping must contain only inactive slots, and not accidentally a slot that the system currently runs from.

For this mapping, RAUC allows to define different slot classes. A class describes multiple redundant slots of the same type. This can be, for example, a class for root file system slots or a class for application slots.

Note that despite the fact that classic A+B redundancy is a common setup for many systems, RAUC conceptually allows any number of redundant slots per class.

Now, multiple slots of different classes can be grouped as a slot group. Such a group is the base for the slot selection algorithm of RAUC.

Consider, for example, a system with two redundant rootfs slots and two redundant application slots. Then you group them together to have a fixed set of a rootfs and application slot each that will be used together.


To detect the active slots, RAUC attempts to detect the currently booted slot. For this, it relies on explicit mapping information provided via the kernel command line, or attempts to find it out using mount information.

All slots of the group containing the active slot will be considered active, too.

2.3.3. Slot Status and Skipping Slot Updates

RAUC hashes each image or archive with SHA-256 when packing it into a bundle and stores this as the image’s “checksum” in the bundle’s manifest file. This checksum allows to reliably identify and distinguish the image’s content.

When installing an image, RAUC can write the image’s checksum together with some status information to a central or per-slot status file (refer statusfile option).

The next time RAUC attempts to install an image to this slot, it will first check the current checksum of the slot by reading its status information, if available. If this checksum equals the checksum of the image to write, RAUC can skip updating this slot as a configurable performance optimization (refer install-same per-slot option).

Note that this method assumes the target’s file-systems are read-only as it cannot detect modifications. Given this restriction, slot skipping can be a lightweight optimization for systems where some slot’s update images change more frequently than others.


When combining this with RAUC’s built-in HTTP(s) bundle streaming, this will also prevent downloading skipped images and thus save download volume.

2.3.4. Boot Slot Selection

A system designed to run from redundant slots must always have a component that is responsible for selecting one of the bootable slots. Usually, this will be some kind of bootloader, but it could also be an initramfs booting a special-purpose Linux system.

Of course, as a normal user-space tool, RAUC cannot do the selection itself, but provides a well-defined interface and abstraction for interacting with different bootloaders (e.g. GRUB, Barebox, U-Boot) or boot selection methods.


In order to allow RAUC to switch to the correct slot, its system configuration must specify the name of the respective slot from the bootloader’s perspective. You also have to set up an appropriate boot selection logic in the bootloader itself, either by scripting (as for GRUB, U-Boot) or by using dedicated boot selection infrastructure (such as bootchooser in Barebox).

The bootloader must also provide a set of variables the Linux userspace can modify in order to change boot order or priority.

Having this interface ready, RAUC will care for setting the boot logic appropriately. It will, for example, deactivate the slot to be updated before writing to it, and reactivate it after completing the installation successfully.

2.3.5. Installation and Storage Handling

As mentioned above, RAUC basically writes images to devices or partitions, but also allows installing file system content from (compressed) tar archives.

In addition to the need for different methods to write to storage (simple copy for block devices, nandwrite for NAND, ubiupdatevol for UBI volumes, …) the tar-based installation requires additional handling and preparation of storage.

Thus, the possible and required handling depends on both the type of input image (e.g. .tar.xz, .ext4, .img) as well as the type of storage. A tar archive can be installed on different file systems while an ext4 file system slot might be filled by both an .ext4 image or a tar archive.

To deal with all these possible combinations, RAUC provides an update handler algorithm that uses a matching table to define valid combinations of image and slot type while specifying the appropriate handling.


2.3.6. Boot Confirmation and Fallback

When designing a robust redundant system, update handling does not end with the successful installation of the update on the target slots! Having written your image data without any errors does not mean that the system you just installed will really boot. And even if it boots, there may be crashes or invalid behavior only revealed at runtime or possibly not before a number of days and reboots.

To allow the boot logic to detect if booting a slot succeeded or failed, it needs to receive some feedback from the booted system. For marking a boot as either successful or bad, RAUC provides the commands status mark-good and status mark-bad. These commands interact through the boot loader interface with the respective bootloader implementation to indicate a successful or failed boot.

As detecting an invalid boot is often not possible, i.e. because simply nothing boots or the booted system suddenly crashes, your system should use a hardware watchdog during boot, and have support in the bootloader to detect watchdog resets as failed boots.

Also you need to define what happens when a boot slot is detected to be unusable. For most cases it might be desired to either select one of the redundant slots as fallback or boot into a recovery system. This handling is up to your bootloader.